Having Always Wondered: Practice with Reduced Adverb Clauses

Grammar excites me and humbles me. With each passing year I teach English, I only realize more and more how many questions remain unanswered. I think I know a topic quite well, and then  – whoah… a question from a student makes me pause. I start to answer, and at the same time I’m questioning myself. I begin a new study of the topic to confirm and deepen my understanding. Does this happen to you?

A YouTube viewer asked me about the placement of “not” in reduced adverb clauses. I’m actually covering this topic with a private student, so the structures are fresh in my mind. However, I hadn’t thought much about negative adverb phrases. I know we can place “not” in front of the verb, no matter the form:

  • Not knowing what to do, I looked to my coach for help.
  • Not seriously hurt, I stood up, took a deep breath, and continued playing.

The question, though, was about passive verbs and perfect forms in adverb phrases. True, they aren’t used as much, but inquisitive minds deserve answers. The learner wanted to know which was correct, “not having been invited” or “having not been invited.” I’m inclined to go with the first, but I’m not ready to identify the second as incorrect. Moreover, I thought about our use of “never” in reduced adverb clauses. I can say, “I invited Mary, never thinking my invitation would anger her father.” But wouldn’t the following be acceptable? “Having never met him, I did not realize how protective he was.” I feel a certain degree of variation is tolerated in negative forms. Do you agree?

I’ve put together my Having Always Wondered_handout for advanced students in need of review and expansion. As with many grammar topics, one lesson is rarely enough, so please consider the use of these additional materials. Enjoy!

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